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BGP Routing (Yönlendirme Temelleri)

BGP Routing

 

Paket anahtarlamalı ağlarda kullanılan iki önemli yönlendirme protokolünden birisi mesafe vektörü (distance vector) diğeri ise bağlantı durumudur (link state). Mesafe vektörü yaklaşımında en kısa yolu bulmakta kullanılan bellman-ford algoritması uygulanmaktadır. Bağlantı durumu çözümünde ise asgari tarama ağacı uygulamalarından birisi olan Dijkstra algoritması kullanılmaktadır.

Bir mesafe vektörü uygulaması olan BGP protokolünün ana uygulama alanı otonom sistemler arası yönlendirmelerdir. Aslında tam bir mesafe vektörü olmayan BGP protokolü yapı olarak çok benzemektedir. Çünkü bu sistemde mesafe vektörüne benzer şekilde komşuların sürekli olarak haberdar edilmesi ve değişikliklerin bildirilmesi gerekir.
BGP’nin çıkışı EGP protokolünün yerine alternatif olarak merkezî olmayan bir yönlendirme yapabilmektir. BGP genel olarak büyük ölçekli ağları bir araya getirmek için kullanılabilir, örneğin OSPF kullanan ağların BGP üzerinden birbirine bağlanması mümkündür. Genellikle otonom sistemleri birbirine bağlaması hasebiyle çoğu kullanıcı BGP ile doğrudan muhatab olmaz ancak hemen hemen her internet servis sağlayıcısı ana omurgada bir BGP bağlantısı kullanmak zorunda olduğu için BGP İnternetin en önemli protokollerinden birisi olarak sayılabilir.

BGP kurulumu el ile müdahaleyi gerektirir ve 179 porttan TCP ile bağlantı sağlar. BGP ayarlı bir yönlendirici sürekli olarak normal kurulumda her 60 saniyede bir 19byte uzunluğunda bir paket yollayarak komşularını haberdar eder. Diğer yönlendirme protokollerinden farklı olarak TCP protokolünü kullanan neredeyse tek yönlendirme protokolü BGP’dir.
Otonom sistemleri bağlamanın dışında bir otonom sistem içerisinde de kullanılabilen BGP bu durumda IBGP ( İç sınır kapısı protokolü, Interior Border Gateway Protocol) ismini alır. Otonom sistemler arası bağlantı durumunda ise EBGP ( Dış sınır kapısı protokolü, Exterior Border Gateway Protocol) ismini alır.

Otonom sistem seviyesinde döngülerin yakalanması da BGP’nin önemli fonksiyonlarından birisidir. Bu işlem sırasında BGP protokolü daha karmaşık hale gelmektedir ancak döngülerin sebep olduğu problemler düşünüldüğünde oldukça kullanışlı bir çözümdür. AS_PATH özelliği olarak bilinen bu özellikle paketin geçtiği otonom sistemlerin listesi tutulur. Şayet bu AS_PATH listesinde kendi bilgisine rastlanırsa bu bir döngü olduğunu gösterir. Bu durumda yönlendirici AS_PATH üzerindeki en kısa yolu tercih ederek diğer yoldan vaz geçer.

Otonom sistem seviyesinde döngülerin yakalanması da BGP’nin önemli fonksiyonlarından birisidir. Bu işlem sırasında BGP protokolü daha karmaşık hale gelmektedir ancak döngülerin sebep olduğu problemler düşünüldüğünde oldukça kullanışlı bir çözümdür. AS_PATH özelliği olarak bilinen bu özellikle paketin geçtiği otonom sistemlerin listesi tutulur. Şayet bu AS_PATH listesinde kendi bilgisine rastlanırsa bu bir döngü olduğunu gösterir. Bu durumda yönlendirici AS_PATH üzerindeki en kısa yolu tercih ederek diğer yoldan vaz geçer.

Konf:

 

autostart = false
model = 3640

[localhost]

[[3640]]
image = ./c3640-js-mz.124-18.bin.image
workingdir = /bgp/private
ram = 128
slot0 = NM-1FE-TX
slot1 = NM-4T
disk0 = 8

idlepc = 0x604f7b2c

# Router 1
[[Router as1r1]]
f0/0 = S1 11

# Router 2
[[Router as1r2]]
f0/0 = S1 12
s1/0 = F1 2

# Router 3
[[Router as1r3]]
f0/0 = S1 13
s1/0 = F1 3

# Router 4
[[Router as5r1]]
s1/0 = F1 4

# Router 5
[[Router as2r2]]
f0/0 = S1 22
s1/0 = F1 5

# Router 6
[[Router as2r3]]
f0/0 = S1 23
s1/0 = F1 6

# Router 7
[[Router as3r1]]
s1/0 = F1 7

# Router 8
[[Router as2r4]]
f0/0 = S1 24
s1/0 = F1 8

# Router 9
[[Router as2r1]]
f0/0 = S1 21
s1/0 = F1 9

# Router 10
[[Router as4r1]]
s1/0 = F1 10

[[ETHSW S1]]
11 = access 111
12 = access 111
13 = access 111

21 = access 222
22 = access 222
23 = access 222
24 = access 222

[[FRSW F1]]
2:205 = 5:502
2:215 = 5:512
2:206 = 6:602

3:306 = 6:603
3:307 = 7:703

4:407 = 7:704

7:710 = 10:107

8:810 = 10:108

hostname as1r1
!
ip cef
no ip domain lookup
!
interface Loopback0
ip address 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
!
interface FastEthernet0/0
ip address 1.1.1.9 255.255.255.248
duplex auto
speed auto
!
interface Serial1/0
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/1
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/2
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/3
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
router ospf 1
log-adjacency-changes
network 1.1.1.1 0.0.0.0 area 0
network 1.1.1.8 0.0.0.7 area 0
!
router bgp 1
no synchronization
bgp log-neighbor-changes
neighbor IBGP-PEERS peer-group
neighbor IBGP-PEERS update-source Loopback0
neighbor 1.1.1.2 remote-as 1
neighbor 1.1.1.2 peer-group IBGP-PEERS
neighbor 1.1.1.3 remote-as 1
neighbor 1.1.1.3 peer-group IBGP-PEERS
no auto-summary
!
end

as1r1#sh ip bgp
BGP table version is 14, local router ID is 1.1.1.1
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal,
r RIB-failure, S Stale
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
*>i1.1.1.0/24 1.1.1.2 0 200 0 i
r>i1.1.1.8/29 1.1.1.2 0 200 0 i
*>i1.1.1.32/30 1.1.1.2 0 200 0 i
*>i1.1.1.36/30 1.1.1.2 0 200 0 i
*>i1.1.1.40/30 1.1.1.2 0 200 0 i
* i2.2.2.0/24 1.1.1.3 0 100 0 3 4 2 i
*>i 1.1.1.2 0 200 0 2 i
*>i3.3.3.0/24 1.1.1.2 0 200 0 2 4 3 i
* i 1.1.1.3 0 100 0 3 i
*>i4.4.4.0/24 1.1.1.2 0 200 0 2 4 i
* i 1.1.1.3 0 100 0 3 4 i
*>i5.5.5.0/24 1.1.1.2 0 200 0 2 4 3 5 i
* i 1.1.1.3 0 100 0 3 5 i

as1r1#sh ip bgp sum
BGP router identifier 1.1.1.1, local AS number 1
BGP table version is 14, main routing table version 14
9 network entries using 1053 bytes of memory
13 path entries using 676 bytes of memory
11/6 BGP path/bestpath attribute entries using 1364 bytes of memory
8 BGP AS-PATH entries using 192 bytes of memory
0 BGP route-map cache entries using 0 bytes of memory
0 BGP filter-list cache entries using 0 bytes of memory
BGP using 3285 total bytes of memory
BGP activity 9/0 prefixes, 14/1 paths, scan interval 60 secs

Neighbor V AS MsgRcvd MsgSent TblVer InQ OutQ Up/Down State/PfxRcd
1.1.1.2 4 1 14 8 14 0 0 00:05:01 9
1.1.1.3 4 1 14 8 14 0 0 00:05:13 4

hostname as1r2
!
ip cef
!
interface Loopback0
ip address 1.1.1.2 255.255.255.255
!
interface FastEthernet0/0
ip address 1.1.1.10 255.255.255.248
duplex auto
speed auto
!
interface Serial1/0
no ip address
encapsulation frame-relay
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/0.205 point-to-point
ip address 1.1.1.33 255.255.255.252
snmp trap link-status
frame-relay interface-dlci 205
!
interface Serial1/0.206 point-to-point
ip address 1.1.1.41 255.255.255.252
snmp trap link-status
frame-relay interface-dlci 206
!
interface Serial1/0.215 point-to-point
ip address 1.1.1.37 255.255.255.252
snmp trap link-status
frame-relay interface-dlci 215
!
interface Serial1/1
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/2
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/3
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
router ospf 1
log-adjacency-changes
network 1.1.1.2 0.0.0.0 area 0
network 1.1.1.8 0.0.0.7 area 0
!
router bgp 1
no synchronization
bgp default local-preference 200
bgp log-neighbor-changes
bgp soft-reconfig-backup
network 1.1.1.8 mask 255.255.255.248
network 1.1.1.32 mask 255.255.255.252
network 1.1.1.36 mask 255.255.255.252
network 1.1.1.40 mask 255.255.255.252
aggregate-address 1.1.1.0 255.255.255.0
neighbor 1.1.1.1 remote-as 1
neighbor 1.1.1.1 update-source Loopback0
neighbor 1.1.1.3 remote-as 1
neighbor 1.1.1.3 update-source Loopback0
neighbor 1.1.1.34 remote-as 2
neighbor 1.1.1.34 weight 100
neighbor 1.1.1.34 filter-list 10 out
neighbor 1.1.1.38 remote-as 2
neighbor 1.1.1.38 weight 100
neighbor 1.1.1.38 filter-list 10 out
neighbor 1.1.1.42 remote-as 2
neighbor 1.1.1.42 route-map Set_MED out
neighbor 1.1.1.42 filter-list 10 out
maximum-paths 2
no auto-summary
!
ip route 1.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 Null0
!
ip as-path access-list 10 permit ^$
!
route-map Set_MED permit 10
set metric +10
!
end

as1r2# sh ip bgp
BGP table version is 18, local router ID is 1.1.1.2
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal,
r RIB-failure, S Stale
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
r> 1.1.1.0/24 0.0.0.0 32768 i
*> 1.1.1.8/29 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i
*> 1.1.1.32/30 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i
*> 1.1.1.36/30 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i
*> 1.1.1.40/30 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i
* i2.2.2.0/24 1.1.1.3 0 100 0 3 4 2 i
* 1.1.1.42 0 2 i
* 1.1.1.38 100 2 i
*> 1.1.1.34 100 2 i
* 3.3.3.0/24 1.1.1.42 0 2 4 3 i
* 1.1.1.38 100 2 4 3 i
*> 1.1.1.34 100 2 4 3 i
* i 1.1.1.3 0 100 0 3 i
* 4.4.4.0/24 1.1.1.42 0 2 4 i
* 1.1.1.38 100 2 4 i
*> 1.1.1.34 100 2 4 i
* i 1.1.1.3 0 100 0 3 4 i
* 5.5.5.0/24 1.1.1.42 0 2 4 3 5 i
* 1.1.1.38 100 2 4 3 5 i
*> 1.1.1.34 100 2 4 3 5 i
* i 1.1.1.3 0 100 0 3 5 i

as1r2#sh ip bgp sum
BGP router identifier 1.1.1.2, local AS number 1
BGP table version is 18, main routing table version 18
9 network entries using 1053 bytes of memory
21 path entries using 1092 bytes of memory
4 multipath network entries and 8 multipath paths
11/6 BGP path/bestpath attribute entries using 1364 bytes of memory
8 BGP AS-PATH entries using 192 bytes of memory
0 BGP route-map cache entries using 0 bytes of memory
9 BGP filter-list cache entries using 108 bytes of memory
BGP using 3809 total bytes of memory
BGP activity 9/0 prefixes, 26/5 paths, scan interval 60 secs

Neighbor V AS MsgRcvd MsgSent TblVer InQ OutQ Up/Down State/PfxRcd
1.1.1.1 4 1 9 15 18 0 0 00:06:26 0
1.1.1.3 4 1 15 15 18 0 0 00:06:31 4
1.1.1.34 4 2 17 13 18 0 0 00:06:07 4
1.1.1.38 4 2 17 13 18 0 0 00:06:06 4
1.1.1.42 4 2 19 13 18 0 0 00:06:21 4

hostname as1r3
!
ip cef
no ip domain lookup
!
interface Loopback0
ip address 1.1.1.3 255.255.255.255
!
interface FastEthernet0/0
ip address 1.1.1.11 255.255.255.248
duplex auto
speed auto
!
interface Serial1/0
no ip address
encapsulation frame-relay
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/0.306 point-to-point
ip address 1.1.1.45 255.255.255.252
snmp trap link-status
frame-relay interface-dlci 306
!
interface Serial1/0.307 point-to-point
ip address 1.1.1.49 255.255.255.252
snmp trap link-status
frame-relay interface-dlci 307
!
interface Serial1/1
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/2
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/3
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
router ospf 1
log-adjacency-changes
network 1.1.1.3 0.0.0.0 area 0
network 1.1.1.8 0.0.0.7 area 0
!
router bgp 1
no synchronization
bgp log-neighbor-changes
bgp soft-reconfig-backup
network 1.1.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0
neighbor 1.1.1.1 remote-as 1
neighbor 1.1.1.1 update-source Loopback0
neighbor 1.1.1.1 next-hop-self
neighbor 1.1.1.2 remote-as 1
neighbor 1.1.1.2 update-source Loopback0
neighbor 1.1.1.2 next-hop-self
neighbor 1.1.1.46 remote-as 2
neighbor 1.1.1.46 route-map Set_MED out
neighbor 1.1.1.46 filter-list 10 out
neighbor 1.1.1.50 remote-as 3
neighbor 1.1.1.50 weight 100
neighbor 1.1.1.50 route-map prepend out
neighbor 1.1.1.50 filter-list 10 out
no auto-summary
!
ip as-path access-list 10 permit ^$
!
route-map Set_MED permit 10
set metric +20
!
route-map prepend permit 10
set as-path prepend 1 1 1 1
!
end

as1r3#sh ip bgp
BGP table version is 13, local router ID is 1.1.1.3
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal,
r RIB-failure, S Stale
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
*>i1.1.1.0/24 1.1.1.2 0 200 0 i
r>i1.1.1.8/29 1.1.1.2 0 200 0 i
*>i1.1.1.32/30 1.1.1.2 0 200 0 i
*>i1.1.1.36/30 1.1.1.2 0 200 0 i
*>i1.1.1.40/30 1.1.1.2 0 200 0 i
*> 2.2.2.0/24 1.1.1.50 100 3 4 2 i
* i 1.1.1.2 0 200 0 2 i
* 1.1.1.46 0 2 i
* 3.3.3.0/24 1.1.1.46 0 2 4 3 i
* i 1.1.1.2 0 200 0 2 4 3 i
*> 1.1.1.50 0 100 3 i
* 4.4.4.0/24 1.1.1.46 0 2 4 i
* i 1.1.1.2 0 200 0 2 4 i
*> 1.1.1.50 100 3 4 i
* 5.5.5.0/24 1.1.1.46 0 2 4 3 5 i
* i 1.1.1.2 0 200 0 2 4 3 5 i
*> 1.1.1.50 100 3 5 i

as1r3#sh ip bgp sum
BGP router identifier 1.1.1.3, local AS number 1
BGP table version is 13, main routing table version 13
9 network entries using 1053 bytes of memory
17 path entries using 884 bytes of memory
15/6 BGP path/bestpath attribute entries using 1860 bytes of memory
8 BGP AS-PATH entries using 192 bytes of memory
0 BGP route-map cache entries using 0 bytes of memory
7 BGP filter-list cache entries using 84 bytes of memory
BGP using 4073 total bytes of memory
BGP activity 9/0 prefixes, 17/0 paths, scan interval 60 secs

Neighbor V AS MsgRcvd MsgSent TblVer InQ OutQ Up/Down State/PfxRcd
1.1.1.1 4 1 13 19 13 0 0 00:10:27 0
1.1.1.2 4 1 19 19 13 0 0 00:10:21 9
1.1.1.46 4 2 23 17 13 0 0 00:10:18 4
1.1.1.50 4 3 23 17 13 0 0 00:10:15 4

hostname as5r1
!
ip cef
no ip domain lookup
!
ip tcp path-mtu-discovery
!
interface Loopback0
ip address 5.5.5.1 255.255.255.255
!
interface FastEthernet0/0
no ip address
shutdown
duplex auto
speed auto
!
interface Serial1/0
no ip address
encapsulation frame-relay
serial restart-delay 0
hold-queue 100 in
hold-queue 50 out
!
interface Serial1/0.407 point-to-point
ip address 5.5.5.33 255.255.255.252
snmp trap link-status
frame-relay interface-dlci 407
!
interface Serial1/1
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/2
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/3
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
router bgp 5
no synchronization
bgp log-neighbor-changes
bgp dampening
bgp scan-time 30
network 5.5.5.0 mask 255.255.255.0
neighbor 5.5.5.34 remote-as 3
neighbor 5.5.5.34 capability orf prefix-list send
neighbor 5.5.5.34 prefix-list ORF_FILTER in
neighbor 5.5.5.34 maximum-prefix 5 warning-only
no auto-summary
!
ip route 5.5.5.0 255.255.255.0 Null0
!
ip prefix-list ORF_FILTER seq 5 deny 1.1.1.8/29
ip prefix-list ORF_FILTER seq 10 deny 1.1.1.32/30
ip prefix-list ORF_FILTER seq 15 deny 1.1.1.36/30
ip prefix-list ORF_FILTER seq 20 deny 1.1.1.40/30
ip prefix-list ORF_FILTER seq 25 permit 0.0.0.0/0 le 32
!
end

as5r1#sh ip bgp
BGP table version is 7, local router ID is 5.5.5.1
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal,
r RIB-failure, S Stale
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
*> 1.1.1.0/24 5.5.5.34 0 3 4 2 1 i
*> 2.2.2.0/24 5.5.5.34 0 3 4 2 i
*> 3.3.3.0/24 5.5.5.34 0 0 3 i
*> 4.4.4.0/24 5.5.5.34 0 3 4 i
*> 5.5.5.0/24 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i

as5r1#sh ip bgp sum
BGP router identifier 5.5.5.1, local AS number 5
BGP table version is 7, main routing table version 7
5 network entries using 585 bytes of memory
5 path entries using 260 bytes of memory
6/5 BGP path/bestpath attribute entries using 744 bytes of memory
4 BGP AS-PATH entries using 96 bytes of memory
0 BGP route-map cache entries using 0 bytes of memory
0 BGP filter-list cache entries using 0 bytes of memory
BGP using 1685 total bytes of memory
Dampening enabled. 0 history paths, 0 dampened paths
BGP activity 5/0 prefixes, 5/0 paths, scan interval 30 secs

Neighbor V AS MsgRcvd MsgSent TblVer InQ OutQ Up/Down State/PfxRcd
5.5.5.34 4 3 19 16 7 0 0 00:11:51 4

as5r1#sh ip bgp dampening parameters
dampening 15 750 2000 60 (DEFAULT)
Half-life time : 15 mins Decay Time : 2320 secs
Max suppress penalty: 12000 Max suppress time: 60 mins
Suppress penalty : 2000 Reuse penalty : 750

as5r1#

hostname as2r2
!
ip cef
no ip domain lookup
!
interface Loopback0
ip address 2.2.2.2 255.255.255.255
!
interface FastEthernet0/0
ip address 2.2.2.9 255.255.255.248
duplex auto
speed auto
!
interface Serial1/0
no ip address
encapsulation frame-relay
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/0.502 point-to-point
ip address 1.1.1.34 255.255.255.252
snmp trap link-status
frame-relay interface-dlci 502
!
interface Serial1/0.512 point-to-point
ip address 1.1.1.38 255.255.255.252
snmp trap link-status
frame-relay interface-dlci 512
!
interface Serial1/1
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/2
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/3
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
router ospf 2
log-adjacency-changes
network 2.2.2.2 0.0.0.0 area 0
network 2.2.2.8 0.0.0.7 area 0
!
router bgp 65001
no synchronization
bgp cluster-id 65111
bgp log-neighbor-changes
bgp confederation identifier 2
bgp confederation peers 65002
neighbor 1.1.1.33 remote-as 1
neighbor 1.1.1.37 remote-as 1
neighbor 2.2.2.3 remote-as 65001
neighbor 2.2.2.3 route-reflector-client
neighbor 2.2.2.11 remote-as 65002
maximum-paths 2
no auto-summary
!
ip route 2.2.2.0 255.255.255.0 Null0
!
end

as2r2#sh ip bgp
BGP table version is 13, local router ID is 2.2.2.2
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal,
r RIB-failure, S Stale
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
* 1.1.1.0/24 1.1.1.37 0 0 1 i
*> 1.1.1.33 0 0 1 i
* 1.1.1.8/29 1.1.1.37 0 0 1 i
*> 1.1.1.33 0 0 1 i
r 1.1.1.32/30 1.1.1.37 0 0 1 i
r> 1.1.1.33 0 0 1 i
r 1.1.1.36/30 1.1.1.37 0 0 1 i
r> 1.1.1.33 0 0 1 i
* 1.1.1.40/30 1.1.1.37 0 0 1 i
*> 1.1.1.33 0 0 1 i
r> 2.2.2.0/24 2.2.2.11 0 100 0 (65002) i
*> 3.3.3.0/24 2.2.2.11 0 100 0 (65002) 4 3 i
*> 4.4.4.0/24 2.2.2.11 0 100 0 (65002) 4 i
*> 5.5.5.0/24 2.2.2.11 0 100 0 (65002) 4 3 5 i

as2r2#sh ip bgp sum
BGP router identifier 2.2.2.2, local AS number 65001
BGP table version is 13, main routing table version 13
9 network entries using 1053 bytes of memory
14 path entries using 728 bytes of memory
5 multipath network entries and 10 multipath paths
7/6 BGP path/bestpath attribute entries using 868 bytes of memory
5 BGP AS-PATH entries using 120 bytes of memory
0 BGP route-map cache entries using 0 bytes of memory
0 BGP filter-list cache entries using 0 bytes of memory
BGP using 2769 total bytes of memory
BGP activity 9/0 prefixes, 19/5 paths, scan interval 60 secs

Neighbor V AS MsgRcvd MsgSent TblVer InQ OutQ Up/Down State/PfxRcd
1.1.1.33 4 1 22 26 13 0 0 00:15:51 5
1.1.1.37 4 1 22 26 13 0 0 00:15:50 5
2.2.2.3 4 65001 22 25 13 0 0 00:16:11 0
2.2.2.11 4 65002 23 21 13 0 0 00:16:40 4

hostname as2r3
!
ip cef
no ip domain lookup
!
interface Loopback0
ip address 2.2.2.3 255.255.255.255
!
interface FastEthernet0/0
ip address 2.2.2.10 255.255.255.248
duplex auto
speed auto
!
interface Serial1/0
no ip address
encapsulation frame-relay
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/0.602 point-to-point
ip address 1.1.1.42 255.255.255.252
snmp trap link-status
frame-relay interface-dlci 602
!
interface Serial1/0.603 point-to-point
ip address 1.1.1.46 255.255.255.252
snmp trap link-status
frame-relay interface-dlci 603
!
interface Serial1/1
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/2
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/3
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
router ospf 2
log-adjacency-changes
network 2.2.2.3 0.0.0.0 area 0
network 2.2.2.8 0.0.0.7 area 0
!
router bgp 65001
no synchronization
bgp log-neighbor-changes
bgp confederation identifier 2
bgp confederation peers 65002
neighbor 1.1.1.41 remote-as 1
neighbor 1.1.1.45 remote-as 1
neighbor 2.2.2.2 remote-as 65001
neighbor 2.2.2.2 update-source Loopback0
no auto-summary
!
end

as2r3#sh ip bgp
BGP table version is 16, local router ID is 2.2.2.3
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal,
r RIB-failure, S Stale
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
*>i1.1.1.0/24 2.2.2.2 0 100 0 1 i
* 1.1.1.45 20 0 1 i
* 1.1.1.41 10 0 1 i
*>i1.1.1.8/29 2.2.2.2 0 100 0 1 i
* 1.1.1.45 20 0 1 i
* 1.1.1.41 10 0 1 i
*>i1.1.1.32/30 2.2.2.2 0 100 0 1 i
* 1.1.1.45 20 0 1 i
* 1.1.1.41 10 0 1 i
*>i1.1.1.36/30 2.2.2.2 0 100 0 1 i
* 1.1.1.45 20 0 1 i
* 1.1.1.41 10 0 1 i
r>i1.1.1.40/30 2.2.2.2 0 100 0 1 i
r 1.1.1.45 20 0 1 i
r 1.1.1.41 10 0 1 i
*>i2.2.2.0/24 2.2.2.11 0 100 0 (65002) i
*>i3.3.3.0/24 2.2.2.11 0 100 0 (65002) 4 3 i
*>i4.4.4.0/24 2.2.2.11 0 100 0 (65002) 4 i
*>i5.5.5.0/24 2.2.2.11 0 100 0 (65002) 4 3 5 i

as2r3#sh ip bgp sum
BGP router identifier 2.2.2.3, local AS number 65001
BGP table version is 16, main routing table version 16
9 network entries using 1053 bytes of memory
19 path entries using 988 bytes of memory
11/6 BGP path/bestpath attribute entries using 1364 bytes of memory
5 BGP AS-PATH entries using 120 bytes of memory
0 BGP route-map cache entries using 0 bytes of memory
0 BGP filter-list cache entries using 0 bytes of memory
BGP using 3525 total bytes of memory
BGP activity 9/0 prefixes, 19/0 paths, scan interval 60 secs

Neighbor V AS MsgRcvd MsgSent TblVer InQ OutQ Up/Down State/PfxRcd
1.1.1.41 4 1 24 30 16 0 0 00:17:23 5
1.1.1.45 4 1 24 30 16 0 0 00:17:30 5
2.2.2.2 4 65001 26 23 16 0 0 00:17:30 9

hostname as3r1
!
ip cef
no ip domain lookup
!
interface Loopback0
ip address 3.3.3.1 255.255.255.255
!
interface FastEthernet0/0
no ip address
shutdown
duplex auto
speed auto
!
interface Serial1/0
no ip address
encapsulation frame-relay
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/0.703 point-to-point
ip address 1.1.1.50 255.255.255.252
snmp trap link-status
frame-relay interface-dlci 703
!
interface Serial1/0.704 point-to-point
ip address 5.5.5.34 255.255.255.252
snmp trap link-status
frame-relay interface-dlci 704
!
interface Serial1/0.710 point-to-point
ip address 3.3.3.33 255.255.255.252
snmp trap link-status
frame-relay interface-dlci 710
!
interface Serial1/1
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/2
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/3
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
router bgp 3
no synchronization
bgp log-neighbor-changes
network 3.3.3.0 mask 255.255.255.0
neighbor 1.1.1.49 remote-as 1
neighbor 3.3.3.34 remote-as 4
neighbor 5.5.5.33 remote-as 5
neighbor 5.5.5.33 capability orf prefix-list receive
no auto-summary
!
ip route 3.3.3.0 255.255.255.0 Null0
!
end

as3r1#sh ip bgp
BGP table version is 15, local router ID is 3.3.3.1
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal,
r RIB-failure, S Stale
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
*> 1.1.1.0/24 3.3.3.34 0 4 2 1 i
* 1.1.1.49 0 1 1 1 1 1 i
*> 1.1.1.8/29 3.3.3.34 0 4 2 1 i
* 1.1.1.49 0 1 1 1 1 1 i
*> 1.1.1.32/30 3.3.3.34 0 4 2 1 i
* 1.1.1.49 0 1 1 1 1 1 i
*> 1.1.1.36/30 3.3.3.34 0 4 2 1 i
* 1.1.1.49 0 1 1 1 1 1 i
*> 1.1.1.40/30 3.3.3.34 0 4 2 1 i
* 1.1.1.49 0 1 1 1 1 1 i
*> 2.2.2.0/24 3.3.3.34 0 4 2 i
*> 3.3.3.0/24 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i
*> 4.4.4.0/24 3.3.3.34 0 0 4 i
*> 5.5.5.0/24 5.5.5.33 0 0 5 i

as3r1#sh ip bgp sum
BGP router identifier 3.3.3.1, local AS number 3
BGP table version is 15, main routing table version 15
9 network entries using 1053 bytes of memory
14 path entries using 728 bytes of memory
9/6 BGP path/bestpath attribute entries using 1116 bytes of memory
5 BGP AS-PATH entries using 120 bytes of memory
0 BGP route-map cache entries using 0 bytes of memory
0 BGP filter-list cache entries using 0 bytes of memory
BGP using 3017 total bytes of memory
BGP activity 9/0 prefixes, 15/1 paths, scan interval 60 secs

Neighbor V AS MsgRcvd MsgSent TblVer InQ OutQ Up/Down State/PfxRcd
1.1.1.49 4 1 26 32 15 0 0 00:19:04 5
3.3.3.34 4 4 29 31 15 0 0 00:18:59 7
5.5.5.33 4 5 23 26 15 0 0 00:18:39 1

hostname as2r4
!
ip cef
no ip domain lookup
!
interface Loopback0
ip address 2.2.2.4 255.255.255.255
!
interface FastEthernet0/0
ip address 2.2.2.11 255.255.255.248
duplex auto
speed auto
!
interface Serial1/0
no ip address
encapsulation frame-relay
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/0.810 point-to-point
ip address 2.2.2.33 255.255.255.252
snmp trap link-status
frame-relay interface-dlci 810
!
interface Serial1/1
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/2
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/3
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
router ospf 2
log-adjacency-changes
network 2.2.2.4 0.0.0.0 area 0
network 2.2.2.8 0.0.0.7 area 0
!
router bgp 65002
no synchronization
bgp cluster-id 65222
bgp log-neighbor-changes
bgp confederation identifier 2
bgp confederation peers 65001
network 2.2.2.0 mask 255.255.255.0
neighbor 2.2.2.1 remote-as 65002
neighbor 2.2.2.1 update-source Loopback0
neighbor 2.2.2.1 route-reflector-client
neighbor 2.2.2.1 next-hop-self
neighbor 2.2.2.9 remote-as 65001
neighbor 2.2.2.9 next-hop-self
neighbor 2.2.2.34 remote-as 4
no auto-summary
!
ip route 2.2.2.0 255.255.255.0 Null0
!
end

as2r4#sh ip bgp
BGP table version is 10, local router ID is 2.2.2.4
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal,
r RIB-failure, S Stale
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
*> 1.1.1.0/24 2.2.2.9 0 100 0 (65001) 1 i
*> 1.1.1.8/29 2.2.2.9 0 100 0 (65001) 1 i
*> 1.1.1.32/30 2.2.2.9 0 100 0 (65001) 1 i
*> 1.1.1.36/30 2.2.2.9 0 100 0 (65001) 1 i
*> 1.1.1.40/30 2.2.2.9 0 100 0 (65001) 1 i
*> 2.2.2.0/24 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i
*> 3.3.3.0/24 2.2.2.34 0 4 3 i
*> 4.4.4.0/24 2.2.2.34 0 0 4 i
*> 5.5.5.0/24 2.2.2.34 0 4 3 5 i

as2r4#sh ip bgp sum
BGP router identifier 2.2.2.4, local AS number 65002
BGP table version is 10, main routing table version 10
9 network entries using 1053 bytes of memory
9 path entries using 468 bytes of memory
7/6 BGP path/bestpath attribute entries using 868 bytes of memory
4 BGP AS-PATH entries using 96 bytes of memory
0 BGP route-map cache entries using 0 bytes of memory
0 BGP filter-list cache entries using 0 bytes of memory
BGP using 2485 total bytes of memory
BGP activity 9/0 prefixes, 10/1 paths, scan interval 60 secs

Neighbor V AS MsgRcvd MsgSent TblVer InQ OutQ Up/Down State/PfxRcd
2.2.2.1 4 65002 26 32 10 0 0 00:23:52 0
2.2.2.9 4 65001 29 31 10 0 0 00:24:09 5
2.2.2.34 4 4 34 31 10 0 0 00:23:38 3

hostname as2r1
!
ip cef
!
interface Loopback0
ip address 2.2.2.1 255.255.255.255
!
interface FastEthernet0/0
ip address 2.2.2.12 255.255.255.248
duplex auto
speed auto
!
interface Serial1/0
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
no fair-queue
!
interface Serial1/1
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/2
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/3
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
router ospf 2
log-adjacency-changes
network 2.2.2.1 0.0.0.0 area 0
network 2.2.2.8 0.0.0.7 area 0
!
router bgp 65002
no synchronization
bgp log-neighbor-changes
bgp confederation identifier 2
neighbor 2.2.2.4 remote-as 65002
neighbor 2.2.2.4 update-source Loopback0
no auto-summary
!
end

as2r1#sh ip bgp
BGP table version is 10, local router ID is 2.2.2.1
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal,
r RIB-failure, S Stale
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
*>i1.1.1.0/24 2.2.2.4 0 100 0 (65001) 1 i
*>i1.1.1.8/29 2.2.2.4 0 100 0 (65001) 1 i
*>i1.1.1.32/30 2.2.2.4 0 100 0 (65001) 1 i
*>i1.1.1.36/30 2.2.2.4 0 100 0 (65001) 1 i
*>i1.1.1.40/30 2.2.2.4 0 100 0 (65001) 1 i
*>i2.2.2.0/24 2.2.2.4 0 100 0 i
*>i3.3.3.0/24 2.2.2.4 0 100 0 4 3 i
*>i4.4.4.0/24 2.2.2.4 0 100 0 4 i
*>i5.5.5.0/24 2.2.2.4 0 100 0 4 3 5 i

as2r1#sh ip bgp sum
BGP router identifier 2.2.2.1, local AS number 65002
BGP table version is 10, main routing table version 10
9 network entries using 1053 bytes of memory
9 path entries using 468 bytes of memory
7/6 BGP path/bestpath attribute entries using 868 bytes of memory
4 BGP AS-PATH entries using 96 bytes of memory
0 BGP route-map cache entries using 0 bytes of memory
0 BGP filter-list cache entries using 0 bytes of memory
BGP using 2485 total bytes of memory
BGP activity 9/0 prefixes, 9/0 paths, scan interval 60 secs

Neighbor V AS MsgRcvd MsgSent TblVer InQ OutQ Up/Down State/PfxRcd
2.2.2.4 4 65002 33 27 10 0 0 00:24:39 9

hostname as4r1
!
ip cef
no ip domain lookup
!
interface Loopback0
ip address 4.4.4.3 255.255.255.255
!
interface FastEthernet0/0
no ip address
shutdown
duplex auto
speed auto
!
interface Serial1/0
no ip address
encapsulation frame-relay
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/0.107 point-to-point
ip address 3.3.3.34 255.255.255.252
snmp trap link-status
frame-relay interface-dlci 107
!
interface Serial1/0.108 point-to-point
ip address 2.2.2.34 255.255.255.252
snmp trap link-status
frame-relay interface-dlci 108
!
interface Serial1/1
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/2
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial1/3
no ip address
shutdown
serial restart-delay 0
!
router bgp 4
no synchronization
bgp log-neighbor-changes
network 4.4.4.0 mask 255.255.255.0
neighbor 2.2.2.33 remote-as 2
neighbor 3.3.3.33 remote-as 3
no auto-summary
!
ip route 4.4.4.0 255.255.255.0 Null0
!
end

as4r1#sh ip bgp
BGP table version is 15, local router ID is 4.4.4.3
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal,
r RIB-failure, S Stale
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
*> 1.1.1.0/24 2.2.2.33 0 2 1 i
*> 1.1.1.8/29 2.2.2.33 0 2 1 i
*> 1.1.1.32/30 2.2.2.33 0 2 1 i
*> 1.1.1.36/30 2.2.2.33 0 2 1 i
*> 1.1.1.40/30 2.2.2.33 0 2 1 i
*> 2.2.2.0/24 2.2.2.33 0 0 2 i
*> 3.3.3.0/24 3.3.3.33 0 0 3 i
*> 4.4.4.0/24 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i
*> 5.5.5.0/24 3.3.3.33 0 3 5 i

as4r1#sh ip bgp sum
BGP router identifier 4.4.4.3, local AS number 4
BGP table version is 15, main routing table version 15
9 network entries using 1053 bytes of memory
9 path entries using 468 bytes of memory
7/6 BGP path/bestpath attribute entries using 868 bytes of memory
4 BGP AS-PATH entries using 96 bytes of memory
0 BGP route-map cache entries using 0 bytes of memory
0 BGP filter-list cache entries using 0 bytes of memory
BGP using 2485 total bytes of memory
BGP activity 9/0 prefixes, 15/6 paths, scan interval 60 secs

Neighbor V AS MsgRcvd MsgSent TblVer InQ OutQ Up/Down State/PfxRcd
2.2.2.33 4 2 34 37 15 0 0 00:26:15 6
3.3.3.33 4 3 39 37 15 0 0 00:26:11 2

 

 

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